On the vocational skill education of design art

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Paying equal attention to art and technology -- Thoughts on vocational skill education of design art


-- panlusheng (Doctor of art, vice president and professor of Shandong Academy of Arts and crafts)

China's general higher education has formed a set of teaching models. General disciplines and majors pay more attention to basic knowledge and related knowledge, but pay less attention to the education of practical ability and comprehensive quality. How to adapt higher education to the transformation from planned economy to market economy, how to change or develop the new education system and education model, and how to change the traditional education concepts and methods are the new topics in front of us. For design art colleges, what kind of design talents can be trained to adapt to the development of society should be an urgent problem to be solved and reconsidered. We believe that having good scientific and cultural literacy, keen aesthetic vision, comprehensive creative thinking method and comprehensive quality of mastering the technical ability of this major should also make great progress and breakthrough in China's plastic extruder market, which is the training goal of design art talents in ordinary colleges and universities

historically, China's traditional arts and crafts are the combination of art and handicraft production, and the relationship between design and production is interdependent. With the progress of science and technology and the development of large-scale machine production, the production process has a strict division of labor, and the predictability and manufacturability of design occupy an important position. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, many art colleges and engineering colleges have set up arts and crafts majors, which have played an important role in a certain historical period, but they still do not adapt to the economic development, and the design concept of Arts and crafts is still weak. Of course, there are many reasons for this. From the entrance examination to the school curriculum, the design idea, professional characteristics and practice links all have the problem of emphasizing art over technology. From sketching, painting color to painting patterns, painting decoration and painting design, there is still insufficient attention to the design consciousness and the practical ability of design and production

the phenomenon of fragmentation in the teaching structure still exists. There is a clear lack of the connection between the foundation and the major, the connection and penetration between the majors, the structure of curriculum and theoretical education, and the cultivation of practical ability and professional characteristics. Among them, the courses of "painting" are both numerous and complex. Of course, the author does not mean that the foundation of painting should be diluted, but should be strengthened from some professional directions, but it is not the purpose of this discipline. However, there are very few practical courses that are technical, technological, engineering, economic, and even in-depth production and production. It can be seen that the phenomenon of decoupling the design concept from the production link is reasonable. The key is still some problems in the educational concept and teaching methods

whether it is arts and crafts with traditional appellation or modern design art with artistic design, the professional characteristics are very practical compared with pure art majors. It is not only the proportion of a large number of practice or actual operation in teaching, but also the lack of sufficient understanding of the practical factors and social factors of the nature of products and commodities. This practice is not a practice at the theoretical and practical levels, but a practical experience corresponding to social life, production and processing. It is the direct carrier of design art products. It is caused by the product flow in design practice. 4.3 the requirements of lifting the handles on both sides of the steel plastic pipe bending experimental machine, that is, the basic attribute of design art. In other words, the professional characteristics of design art determine its practical requirements

we know that engineering education pays attention to factory practice, while medical education pays attention to clinical practice. It is reasonable for engineering colleges to set up internship factories and medical colleges to set up affiliated hospitals. Isn't it a lack of art and craft or design art education on paper? The fact proves that this lack is obvious. In Colleges and universities, even the few physical works of graduation design are only wishful thinking, rarely considering the premise of market conditions or social needs, and there is no way to test the production and consumption links. The design art studios, practice facilities and practice sites in Colleges and universities are very few. Even if they are prepared, they are often in vain. They are still places and media for teachers and students to express themselves on paper, on computers and in classrooms. How can the talents cultivated in this environment not be divorced from practice, production and society? This is not only a misunderstanding of "design", but also a disregard for its professional characteristics. Not to mention that our design is far from the combination of modern high technology. Even the design of a light industrial product, clothing accessories, advertising posters, product packaging and daily necessities has failed to achieve the purpose of design art. In terms of the current development status of various disciplines of design art in China, the content and objectives of training are too disconnected from the needs of various social industries, and the concept of discipline or specialty is not clear with the requirements of social industries

over the years, they have attached importance to artistic expression and despised professional theory, skill operation and professional practice. Basic courses are not connected with professional courses, professional courses are not connected with the majors required by the society, and there is a lack of practical project courses. Although there are virtual project designs, most of them do not follow the requirements and laws of marketization, commercialization and industrial technology, and the professional knowledge learned by the school is too far away from the social application specialty. So how many of the college students who have been trained in Arts and crafts in the past 20 years are engaged in relevant professions, and how many graduates have the ability to adapt to the society? This is a serious question for colleagues engaged in design art education. It is very necessary for workers engaged in design art to have a solid artistic foundation and pragmatic design concept, which is obviously determined by their professional nature. Design art is not only a profession that can solve problems with sample design. It requires designers to be familiar with corresponding processes and materials, production processes and links, understand the market and consumption, and meet the requirements of production and consumption

for the design art, the painting effect drawing and production drawing only complete one of the processes, and the formation of the design concept is also based on the needs of daily life and production. If the designers have little or no contact with the actual production, little understanding of people's lifestyle, and are not familiar with the market and consumption information, then their design is only an ideal painting scheme. This idea of not contacting reality and life and production is actually caused by the dominant ideology of painting, which reflects the deep-rooted tendency of aestheticism and the lack of professional recognition of paying equal attention to art and technology. If we establish undergraduate education as the training of design artists, then higher vocational teaching is to train design artists and related professional and technical personnel required by the society. This positioning seems to be more suitable for the reality of China

if the trained professionals can not adapt to the corresponding design work, we should timely check or adjust the professional catalogue, timely adjust the professional layout according to the needs of disciplines and society, and develop higher vocational and technical education while developing general higher education. In recent years, some universities are striving to increase the number of degree points and expand the distribution of majors. In fact, some majors need talents at the basic research level, while some majors are suitable for applied professionals and highly skilled professionals. Do not unilaterally pursue higher levels, but take root 5: bent core, bent core seat: the bent core seat is installed on the piston rod of the oil cylinder. According to the actual situation of the University, the trained objects should be adapted to the needs of social talents. Most of the majors related to design art are developed at the application level. Of course, some majors need higher economic benefits. In short, there should be a reasonable talent training layout. The level division of education is determined according to the attributes of the major. If we blindly seek high, who will run the applied major and who will train the professional and technical personnel needed by the society? If we are all pursuing the so-called high-level development, we will pay attention to one thing and lose the other. In fact, we still lack an overall grasp of talent training and demand. The fundamental difference between the training objectives of design art colleges and ordinary art colleges is that art colleges are the cradle for training artists, painters or popularizing art workers, while arts and crafts and design art colleges should cultivate professional design talents with equal emphasis on art and technology, not only to cultivate their aesthetic creativity, but also to cultivate their ability to master and apply science and technology. However, the education mode we have formed for decades makes art teaching, normal art teaching and arts and crafts, design art education inseparable. People are used to following the path of art teaching, or the development of a single art teaching mode. In the long run, it is impossible to cultivate design art professionals with comprehensive quality and social needs

the education of design art should be divided into different levels of development. General education should pay attention to the cultivation of comprehensive ability with professional theory, professional performance and professional practice as the main body, and vocational and technical education should pay more attention to the cultivation of professional practical ability and technical ability. Both of them have their own emphasis on training objectives, but the professional characteristics of design art can not be ignored. At present, most of the general education of design art in China attaches importance to "professional performance" and lacks "professional theory" and "professional practice". However, the newly started higher vocational and technical education is mostly a copy of general education and lacks the training content of vocational skills. If we just change the name instead of considering the characteristics of Vocational and technical education from the relevant occupations of social needs, The nature of Vocational and technical education can only be a supplement to ordinary university education, which has lost the substantive significance of higher vocational education, and can not play the role of training front-line technical talents urgently needed by the society. In fact, China's arts and crafts or design art education has always been characterized by vocational and technical education, but in terms of teaching content, it has followed the development of art teaching for many years, forming a self righteous design art teaching model, but it is obviously lacking in the combination of art and technology. However, the development of Arts and crafts or design art education in the past two decades shows that some people tend to pay attention to artistic expression and neglect design theory and skills

it should be said that the cultivation of skills and techniques is the core content of the major. For example, the cultivation of ceramic artists will not allow students to experience the nature of clay and the heat of pottery, and the best design is also on paper; When students of advertising design learn creative methods and forms of expression, if they do not understand market consumption knowledge, advertising materials and processes, software knowledge and application, or even printing technology and other related technical knowledge, their advertising design is just a scheme divorced from reality and aesthetic self appreciation. Design is the scheme of both works and products, which is both the expression of art and the carrier of technology. If we still do not have a clear understanding of this problem in modern design, it is impossible for us to cultivate designers and designers who are really needed by the society. In other words, we have a good intention to train talents, but the training result may set the goal wrong. We should summarize some experience from these aspects to facilitate the positioning and development in the next step. On the other hand, the cultivation of theoretical cultivation does not only refer to professional theories, even professional theories have different levels. Principle theory

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