Top ten packaging inventions of the 20th century C

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Top ten packaging inventions in the 20th century (c)

9 In 1972, the United Nations issued the Declaration on the human environment, which opened the curtain of the world's "green revolution". For the packaging industry, "green packaging" is the largest and most shocking "packaging revolution" in the 20th century

in 1975, Germany took the lead in launching "green packaging" with the symbol of "Der gram Punkt" (green recycling pattern of product packaging). In the following ten years, "green packaging" has developed rapidly in countries all over the world, and regional and national standards (such as the European community standard EMAS) have been published successively

In June, 1992, the United Nations issued the "environmental declaration" and "Agenda 21", which attracted the attention of political leaders of all countries. In view of the surging "green wave", in June 1993, the international organization for Standardization (ISO) officially established the "Environmental Protection Committee" (TC207 due to different industries and positions), and began to formulate green environmental protection standards. After three years of efforts, the first environmental protection standard ISO14001 was officially implemented worldwide in January 1996

in recent years, many countries such as the United States, China, Japan, Russia and Western Europe have adopted ISO14001 series environmental protection standards (a total of 100 are expected)

in January, 1999, the international organization for Standardization (ISO) implemented environmental labeling worldwide. So far, it has been adopted by more than 60 countries. It is a certification trademark for product packaging that is universal in the world

for "green packaging", in addition to adopting the green mark (EL), the most substantive thing is to develop green, environmentally friendly and degradable packaging materials, and the most promising is biodegradable plastics

about 60 ~ 80million tons of plastics are discarded after use in the world every year. In order to solve this serious problem, British ICI company developed practical biodegradability in the 1970s ε- Hydroxybutyric acid valeric acid copolymer (p3hb/3hv), the trade name is biopol (biogenic polymer), and then the Japanese branch of American mohnsanto company also produces biopol

biodegradable plastics have developed rapidly. At present, the main ones being applied are: polylactic acid and its copolymers, polycaprolactone, p3hb/3hv/polybutylene succinate (PBS), polybutylene acetate (PBSA), polypropylene succinate (PBA), polypropylene adipate (PPA), cellulose esters, cellulose/chitosan, starch/synthetic polymers And polyester copolymers (such as butylene succinate/propylene glycol ester), etc

"the research on the degradability (reliability) of degradable plastics has also made rapid progress. In 1985, the friction and wear testing machine classification association (ASTM) of the American Society for testing and materials (ASTM) first began to study it. In 1989, Japan established the" Degradable Plastics Research Association "to also get involved in this field, and then formulated national standards. At the same time, Germany also pays close attention to and has formulated DIN standards

since 1996, the international organization for Standardization (ISO) has also formulated the same relevant standard:

① iso14851 (the method of oxygen consumption in water is consistent with JIS K6 950)

② iso14852 (CO2 method in water)

③ iso14853 (anaerobic method)


⑤ iso14855 (composting CO2 method) and so on are used to standardize the evaluation of degradability, ensure the reliability of the development, production, promotion and application of green plastics and truly benefit mankind

although the price of biodegradable plastics is relatively expensive (about 400 ~ 800 yen/kg), which affects the promotion and application, with the development of science and technology and production technology, its price will gradually decrease. It is expected that biodegradable plastics will develop more in the early 21st century

10. Eco machine

among the large and small packaging equipment, the most striking is the eco-friendly green packaging equipment that came out in the 1980s and 1990s

green packaging equipment should meet the following conditions:

① save resources and energy, with less input and high output

② the production process is clean, and non polluting or low pollution technology is adopted

③ high efficiency cost ratio, relying on equipment to increase efficiency under the same material condition

④ ecological environmental protection. For example, the FPP production line launched by Italian AMUT company in 1997 can reduce the cost of ecological environmental protection by 20%

⑤ one machine with multiple functions, high production efficiency

⑥ equipment automation, intellectualization, digitization, etc

in 1996, DMT and Bruckner launched a large-scale production line for BOPP and BOPET biaxial stretching, with a width of 8.5m, a speed of more than 350m/min and an annual capacity of more than 35000 tons

in 1997, Paul kiefel company launched multi-layer co extrusion blow molding equipment, which adopted new die head, new cooling technology and computer intelligent control to ensure the accuracy and high efficiency cost ratio of products

in 1997, in order to promote the application of pen (polyethylene naphthalate), Aoki company and shell chemical company jointly developed pen special injection, drawing and blow molding equipment to produce a series of pen bottles. Its characteristics are that its performance is better than PET bottles, and one machine is multi-purpose and more widely used

after several years of practical investigation, the properties and applications of metallocene copolymers have been recognized. In 1999, Dow plastics decided to put the world's largest ethylene styrene copolymer production equipment into operation, with an annual output of more than 32000 tons. Its production process is advanced and clean, and the temperature of production activity is too low, which can reach 8million times, and the benefit is considerable

due to the implementation of international environmental protection standards (ISO14000) and the mandatory application of international green signs (EL), many large companies in the world have joined forces to develop new green products to occupy the global market

in a word, packaging is a marginal discipline and a comprehensive industry. In the 100 years of the 20th century, it has thousands of inventions and applications, large and small. Limited by the number of words in this article and the level of the author, it has to hang one leak and ten, such as laser packaging technology, stealth packaging technology, radiation protection packaging technology, intelligent packaging technology, packaging CAD and other major inventions and applications, but also have to stay in other articles. Where there are improper or missing parts in the article, it is also the way of hardness value reading: please comment on the dial

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